Research in Africa

The E4Impact Research Team contributes to the understanding of impact entrepreneurship and sustainability in Africa.
It is composed of scholars from the E4Impact Foundation and ALTIS, the Graduate School of Business and Society of Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore and works alongside researchers from the African Universities that belong to the E4Impact Alliance.
The Team publishes in important international journals, develops case studies regarding E4Impact Alumni and monitors the impact of the businesses developed within the E4Impact programs.


  • Impact Entrepreneurship in Africa
  • Social impact measurement
  • Business models for development
  • African opportunities for European companies
  • Sustainability in African countries
  • Sustainable tourism
  • Sustainable supply chains
  • Entrepreneurship and family in Africa


1. Meru, A. K., Ciambotti, G., Ebong, J., Kinoti, M.W., & Mugendi, R. (2020). “Technology and social media in customer service”. In Customer Service Management: A Strategic and Operational Perspective. Routledge. [ISBN: 9780367143374]
(Book Chapter. Editor: Routledge).

2. Ebong, J., Ciambotti, G., Meru, A. K., Nakagwa, A., & Adeola, O. (2020). “Juxtaposing supply and demand side drivers and barriers of the Base of the Pyramid Markets in Uganda”. In Base of the pyramid markets in Africa: innovation and challenges to sustainability. Routledge. [ISBN: 9781138389113]
(Book Chapter. Editor: Routledge).

3. Ciambotti, G., Littlewood, D., Sottini, A., & Nkatha, E. (2020). “Building and scaling social enterprise business models for BoP markets in Kenya”. In Base of the pyramid markets in Africa: innovation and challenges to sustainability. Routledge. [ISBN: 9781138389113]
(Book Chapter. Editor: Routledge).

4. Sottini, A., Ciambotti, G., Sydow, A. (2020). “Decent Living au Kenya”. In Les entreprises familiales en Afrique. 9 Études De Cas, Du Maroc À l’Afrique Du Sud. La Croisée des Chemins. [ISBN :9789920769594]
(Book Chapter. Editor: La Croisée des Chemins).

5. Giudici A., Combs J. G., Cannatelli B. L. and Smith B. R. (2020). Successful scaling in social franchising: The case of Impact Hub. In Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. [DOI: 1042258718801593]

6. Ciambotti G., & Pedrini M. (2019). Hybrid harvesting strategies to overcome resource constraints: evidence from social enterprises in Kenya. Journal of Business Ethics. [DOI: 10.1007/s10551-019-04256-y]

7. Sydow, A., Ciambotti, G., Sottini, A. & Argiolas, A. (2019). Ecotact: Making public restrooms in Kenya sustainable and attractive. In SAGE Business Cases. [DOI: 10.4135/9781526489036]
(Case Study. Editor: SAGE).

8. Sydow, A., Ciambotti, G. & Sottini, A. (2019). Inclusive fish farming in Uganda: The success of co-building at iFish farm. In SAGE Business Cases. [DOI: 10.4135/9781526487520]
(Case Study. Editor: SAGE).

9. Sgrò, F., Ciambotti, G., & Cheboryot, D. (2019). Intellectual Capital and Social Enterprises: empirical evidence from Kenya and Uganda. In European Conference on Intangibles and Intellectual Capital (Vol. 2019, pp. 253-261). Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited. [ISBN: 978-1-912764-18-1]
(Conference proceedings).

10. Sottini, A., Ciambotti, G. & Sydow, A. (2019). How to Scale Social Innovation in the Bottom of Pyramid Market: The Story of Kenya’s Innovation Eye Centre. In SAGE Business Cases. [DOI: 10.4135/9781529727265]
(Case Study. Editor: SAGE).

11. Sottini, A., Ciambotti, G. & Sydow, A. (2019). Totohealth in East Africa: Reaching Financial Sustainability in the Bottom of Pyramid Healthcare Market. In SAGE Business Cases. [DOI: 10.4135/9781529727692]
(Case Study. Editor: SAGE).

12. Ciambotti, G., Sydow, A. & Sottini, A. (2019). The Strauss Energy business model: Affordable technology innovation to empower Kenya and light up the world. In SAGE Business Cases. [DOI: 10.4135/9781526488091]
(Case Study. Editor: SAGE).

13. Ciambotti, G., Sottini, A. & Sydow, A. (2019). Scaling strategies of social enterprises in fair-trade markets: Meru Herbs in Kenya. In SAGE Business Cases. [DOI: 10.4135/9781526496324]
(Case Study. Editor: SAGE).

14. Ciambotti, G., & Pedrini, M. (2019). Hybrid-Diversified Business Models in Social Enterprises: Increase Revenues with a Social Mission. Academy of Management Proceedings. [DOI: 10.5465/AMBPP.2019.16723abstract]

15. Cannatelli B.L., Smith B. and Sydow A. (2019). Entrepreneurship in the Controversial Economy: Toward a Research Agenda. Journal of Business Ethics. [DOI: 10.1007/s10551-017-3482-x]

16. Corsi, S., De Noni, I., & Sydow, A. (2019). Investire in Africa: esperienze e prospettive per le PMI agroalimentari italiane. E4Impact Series Vol. 2. EDUCatt. [ISBN: 978-88-9335-448-6]
(Book. Editor: Educatt).

17. Sottini, A. (2018). “Making healthcare affordable to all: three cases of social entrepreneurship in Africa”. E4Impact Series Vol. 1. EDUCatt. [ISBN: 9788893353427]
(Book. Editor: Educatt).

18. Sydow, A., Cannatelli, B., & Giudici, A. (2018). Orchestrating a Pan-African University Alliance with the help of e-learning. EAI Endorsed Transactions on e-Learning, 5(18).

19. Cannatelli B.L. (2017). Exploring the Contingencies of Scaling Social Impact: A Replication and Extension of the SCALERS Model. Voluntas 28 (6): 2707-2733. [DOI: 10.1007/s11266-016-9789-x]

20. Smith B., Kistruck G. and Cannatelli B. L. (2016). The Impact of Moral Intensity and Desire for Control on Scaling Decisions in Social Entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics 133: 677-689. [DOI: 10.1007/s10551-014-2447-6]

21. Cannatelli B. L., Ferri L., Pedrini M. and Molteni M. (2015). “Recognizing first-person opportunities for sustainable development”. In (ed.) Kyro, P., Handbook of Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development Research, Edward Elgar. [ISBN: 9781849808231]
(Book Chapter).

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